Campaign and Service Medals
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Civil War Campaign Medal


Description

A Bronze medal, 1 1/4 inches in diameter, with the head of Lincoln, nearly in profile, facing sinister, surrounded by the words “WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE WITH CHARITY FOR ALL”. On the reverse are the words “THE CIVIL WAR” and below this are the dates “1861-1865”, surrounded by a wreath formed by a branch of oak on the left and a branch of olive on the right with the stems joined at the bottom by a conventional knot.


Ribbon

The ribbon is 1 3/8 inches wide and equally divided with 11/16 inch Navy Blue #1 67179 and 11/16 inch Gray 67200.


Criteria
See Army Regulation 600-8-22, Military Awards.

Components

The following are authorized components and related items:

a. Medal (regular size): MIL-DTL-3943/190. Not currently available in the supply system.

b. Ribbon: MIL-DTL-11589/25. Available commercially.

c. Streamer: MIL-DTL-11589/25 and MIL-DTL-14650. The gray portion of the streamer is on top for organizations with Confederate service and the blue portion is on top for organizations with Union service.


Background

a. The concept of campaign medals for the Army was first approved by the Assistant Secretary of War and announced in General Orders 4, War Department, dated 11 January 1905 which states ''by authority of the President, campaign badges with ribbons will be issued as articles of the uniform to officers and enlisted men in the service to commemorate services which have been or shall hereafter be rendered in campaigns''. This order further states that ''announcement will be made by the War Department designating campaigns for which will be issued and defining the conditions of the award''. The subject of campaign medals was considered; however, the Judge Advocate General of the Army, in his opinion, concluded it was not proper to issue ''medals'' except by authority of Congress, but it was proper for the President to authorize the issue of ''badges'' as part of the uniform.

b. The first badges authorized under the above order were the Spanish Campaign Badge, Philippine Campaign Badge, and the China Campaign Badge by General Orders 5, War Department, dated 12 January 1905. General Orders 12, War Department, dated 21 January 1907 amended General Orders 5, 12 January 1905, to include authorization for the Civil War Campaign Badge and Indian Campaign Badge. The General Order also stated ''Under existing law these badges can only be issued to persons who are now in the military service of the United States or who may enter the service hereafter. Eligibility was extended to those on the retired list by General Orders 129, War Department, dated 13 August 1908, and in case the retired member was deceased, claims by proper legal representatives of such personnel were honored.

c. The Civil War Campaign Badge was design by Mr. F. D. Millett, a prominent American Artist, and the Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, approved the design and authorized the manufacture of the badge in 1906. The initial contract with a commercial firm was canceled and the design turned over to the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia for manufacture. The initial ribbon design was two bands of red, white, and blue with the red on the outside and the blue bands separated by a thin white stripe in the center. The head of Lincoln was selected because it was the only thing that could be used on the medal without offense to the sentiment then happily prevailing over the whole country in regard to the Civil War. The portrait of Lincoln must be acceptable to everybody, particularly when accompanied by the noble phrase from his second inaugural address which so tersely and accurately expresses his attitude during the war. The ribbon was changed in 1913 to half blue (on the left) and half gray.

d. Because of the desire to provide the medal to individuals no longer in the service, Major General Leonard Wood, Chief of Staff, in a letter to the Director of the U.S. Mint on 30 June 1913 requested the U.S. Mint sell the campaign badges to persons who were no longer in the service.

e. AR 600-65, dated 20 November 1928, refers to the Civil War Campaign Medal rather than badge. Subsequent correspondence and regulations refer to medal rather than badge.

f. Section 33, Act of Congress, 10 August 1956, (10 USC 3751) requires the Secretary of the Army to procure and issue without charge, the Civil War Campaign Medal and other service medals. This law also provides that the medal will be presented to the member’s family if the member dies before it is presented to him.

g. The streamers for display on the organizational flags will have the inscription as shown on the unit's lineage and honors. The 25 Civil War streamers displayed on the Army flag will have the inscriptions as shown in AR 840-10 and AR 600-8-22.






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